Monday, January 23, 2017

Lars Klemsdal, University of Stavanger

Coping with the new work situation: Middle managers’ institutional work during public sector organizational reforms

Time and Location: Time and Location: 3:00-4:30 PM, CERAS Building, 520 Galvez Mall, Stanford CA 94305 (Room 123)

 (Co-authors: Tone Alm Andreassen & Eric Breit)

We analyze how middle managers engage in institutional work during centrally induced top-down organizational reforms in the public sector. By comparing three cases of local enactments of a large central organizational reform within the welfare sector in Norway, we identify how coping work appears as a particularly significant form of institutional work by middle managers in this context. We find that this coping work is based on a particular mode of agency that is practical evaluative in that it involves both operational and conceptual work. Important findings, and the main contributions of the paper, are that this coping work entails a turn towards the new work situation that follows from the formal implementation of the reform. In this turn, the institutional visions of the reform are “crowded out” so to speak, by a range of other constituencies and regards that concern the middle managers in their daily operations. Subsequently, the managers in this process develop an autonomous local institutional vision for how to go about performing the public services at their local shop. Thus, contrary to expectations from previous studies of middle managers work during public sector reform, the institutional work of the local middle managers are only loosely coupled to the implementation work, enjoying a larger degree of autonomy and agency than expected. 

Monday, January 30, 2017

Wenyao Zhao, EMLYON Business School

A Pragmatist Perspective on Institutional Worker

Time and Location: Time and Location: 3:00-4:30 PM, CERAS Building, 520 Galvez Mall, Stanford CA 94305 (Room 123)

Institutional worker has been largely under-theorized in existing institutional work research, which tends to make causal assumptions when designating actor. Drawing on insights from classic and relational pragmatism, this study peruses the three characteristics of institutional worker, i.e. goal-orientation, capability, and reflexivity, and develops situated and contextual understandings of these characteristics. Specifically, this research highlights 1) the role of reflexivity throughout problem solving, 2) the importance of decomposing intentionality, and 3) the value of indexicality as a lens for examining the realization of capability and the shift from action potentials to actual actions. Taken as a whole, our view of institutional worker as purpose-driven, situatively intentional, and contextually capable problem solver provides theoretical clues for defining actorhood and delineating its features in different empirical settings.

Monday, February 6, 2017

David F. Labaree, Stanford Graduate School of Education

Balancing Access and Advantage in the History of American Schooling

Time and Location: Time and Location: 3:00-4:30 PM, CERAS Building, 520 Galvez Mall, Stanford CA 94305 (Room 123)

In this paper, I will focus on the dual role that schooling plays in a liberal democracy, by promoting both access and advantage for citizen-consumers. Justice in a political democracy has continually called for making schools accessible, but the persistent inequality in a market economy has continually called for preserving social advantage through the stratification of the school system. To tell this story, I will draw on the history of American schooling between 1830 and the present. The story will focus on the swings between access and advantage in the American system during three eras of educational expansion and transformation:

Common school era: Opening up universal access to elementary school, accompanied by (and made possible by) the advantage offered by the uncommon high school.

Progressive era: The rapid expansion of access to high school, with the corresponding stratification of high school and the move by middle class students into college.

Mid 20th century: The rapid expansion of access to college, with the corresponding stratification of higher education and the move by middle class students into graduate school.

Monday, February 13, 2017

Doris Hanappi, Visiting Fellow, UC Berkeley

Job insecurity and life satisfaction: Does it hurt more when parents’ jobs are at risk?

Time and Location: Time and Location: 3:00-4:30 PM, CERAS Building, 520 Galvez Mall, Stanford CA 94305 (Room 123)

There is consensus that perceived job insecurity decreases life satisfaction, but findings concerning the association between parenthood and life satisfaction are mixed. This study addresses the question of whether and to what extent job insecurity is more detrimental to parents than nonparents. A major objective of this study is to determine anticipation and habituation effects of job insecurity and to assess whether these change when having children. The empirical analysis applies fixed-effects models and uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Swiss Household Panel. The main findings are that (a) job insecurity among men and women in both countries was anticipated and the effects did not wear off over time; (b) parents derived significant life satisfaction from raising young children; (c) the impact of job insecurity did not vary with family demands such as those associated with age and number of children.

Monday, February 27, 2017

Henrich Greve, INSEAD,Visiting Scholar,Stanford Graduate School of Business

Disasters and Community Resilience: Spanish Flu and the Formation of Retail Cooperatives in Norway

Time and Location: Time and Location: 3:00-4:30 PM, CERAS Building, 520 Galvez Mall, Stanford CA 94305 (Room 123)

Why are some communities resilient in the face of disasters, and why are others unable to recover? We suggest that two mechanisms matter: the framing of the cause of the disaster, and the community civic capacity to form diverse non-profits. We propose that disasters that are attributed to other community members weaken cooperation and reduce the formation of new cooperatives that serve the community, unlike disasters attributed to chance or to nature, which strengthen cooperation and increase the creation of cooperatives. We analyze the Spanish Flu, a contagious disease that was attributed to infected individuals, and compare it with spring frost, which damaged crops and was attributed to nature. Our measure of resilience is whether the community members could form retail cooperatives – non-profit community organizations. We find that communities hit by the Spanish Flu during the period 1918-1919 were unable to form new retail cooperatives in the short and long run after the epidemic, but this effect was reduced over time and countered by civic capacity. Implications for research on disasters and institutional legacies are outlined.

Monday, March 6, 2017

Peter Vandor, WU Vienna

The resource needs of social and commercial entrepreneurs: beyond resourceful heroes and one-dimensional goals

Time and Location: Time and Location: 3:00-4:30 PM, CERAS Building, 520 Galvez Mall, Stanford CA 94305 (Room 123)

Over the last decades, the support for social entrepreneurs has increased strongly. The new support infrastructure often uses the same instruments as for commercial entrepreneurs. However, it is unclear whether the needs of commercial and social entrepreneurs are alike or different.

This paper explores the resource needs of early-stage social entrepreneurs. Reflecting the ongoing debate about the nature of social entrepreneurship, we develop and test hypotheses for two definitions of actors: mission-first entrepreneurs (vs. commercial entrepreneurs) and hybrid entrepreneurs (vs. entrepreneurs with one dominant value-creation goal). Hypotheses were tested among 1,805 founders, managers and employees in 31 countries. 

Results indicate that the distinctness of needs depends on the definition of the actor. The needs of mission-first entrepreneurs largely resemble those of commercial entrepreneurs. Hybrid entrepreneurs however exhibit a different pattern and require more knowledge, peer support and organizational resources. At the same time, they seem more resilient in face of low regulatory quality than all other types. The paper highlights that the debate about the definition of social entrepreneurship is far from over and can have meaningful consequences for supporters and policy makers.

Monday, March 13, 2017

Andrew Lakoff, USC/CASBS Fellow

Diagnosing Failure: Ebola 2014 and the Administrative Imagination of Disease

Time and Location: Time and Location: 3:00-4:30 PM, CERAS Building, 520 Galvez Mall, Stanford CA 94305 (Room 123)

In the aftermath of the 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the World Health Organization was widely blamed for its slow initial response to the outbreak. According to many critics, the epidemic was a "preventable tragedy" that could be attributed to flaws in WHO leadership and its lack of sufficient resources. This talk offers a somewhat different interpretation: it suggests that a significant dimension of the failure was one of administrative imagination: at a crucial stage in the outbreak, health authorities did not conceptualize Ebola as the potential source of a catastrophic epidemic, but rather understood it as a disease that could be managed via localized humanitarian care combined with straightforward public health techniques. In turn, the talk argues, the post-hoc diagnosis of administrative failure worked to assimilate Ebola into the more generic category of "global health emergency." 

Monday, March 20, 2017

Mathias Nielsen, SCANCOR Postdoctoral Scholar, Stanford University

Integrating gender and sex analysis into medical research: Does author gender matter?

Time and Location: Time and Location: 3:00-4:30 PM, CERAS Building, 520 Galvez Mall, Stanford CA 94305 (Room 123)

A growing body of literature documents the importance of accounting for gender- and sex-related factors in medical science. Efforts to stimulate gender-responsible research have also become a key tenet in science-policy maker’s promotion of gender equality in research and innovation. Yet while policy efforts to increase the number of women in academic medicine and to promote gender and sex analysisoften go hand in hand, we know little about whether and how these objectives are connected. Are women and men equally likely to integrate gender and sex analysis into their research designs? To investigate this question, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of seven years of disease-specific medical literature (N 1,542,690). Adjusting for variations across countries, disease-topics and medical research areas, we compared the participation of women authors in studies that do and do not involve gender- and sex-based analysis.Overall, our results show a robust positive correlation between women’s authorship and a study’s likelihood of engaging gender and sex analysis. These findings  corroborate discussions of how women’s participation in medical science links to research outcomes, and illustrate the mutual benefits of promoting both women’s scientific advancement and the integration of gender and sex analysis into medical research.